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This is the small print where I deny everything and refuse to take any responsibility for anything. Any opinions given should not be taken as facts & any facts given should not be taken as opinions. As an extra precaution all the really small print is in white text, this is copyrighted .


E. & O. E.


Copyright www.petespintpot.co.uk  2008. First published 17 October 2008, last updated  20 Feb. 2017.


Pete’s Pint Pot is dedicated to the home production & sensible drinking of beer, wine, cider & meads plus a little bit of china painting & a few bits of photograph tampering.


If you are affected by any of the articles on this site or any of the issues raised in them, I truly feel very sorry for you.


Finally the sanity clause: As Chico Marx

famously said to brother Groucho,


  “Everybody knows there ain't no

     Sanity Clause!”



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General Wine Recipes

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Annual 2015

           Metric measures are used mainly on this page. Some IMPERIAL measures may also appear but DO NOT confuse them with US units (liquid measures).


FOREWORD


These are generally chosen for their ease to make using readily available & cheap ingredients with the minimum of chemical additives, hopefully most will produce very drinkable wines that mature very quickly - within 3 month.

Quantities are not very critical.

They are all typical recipes from books, 1 tsp of Bentonite, added at the start of fermentation will aid clearing.

Most recipes use 1 tsp of (cheap tub) yeast, 1 sachet of yeast would be much better.

Some recipes may be a bit “dubious” to say the least & so I suggest running them through the YoBrew wine recipe calculator to get an idea of their possible outcome. Ignore any instructions to make a banana “gravy” or to include any banana peel, just mash up the flesh & stick it in the fermenter.

If oranges, lemons etc. are used to add acidity I suggest they are replaced by tartaric (or citric or malic) acid, most recipes list acid when it is not needed! Again, check with the YoBrew calculator. Any mention of tannin or tea has been removed for the same reason.

240g currants/raisins & sultanas can be replaced by 1000ml supermarket grape juice.

cCt refers to “crushed Campden tablet”.


I HAVE NOT MADE THESE WINES but I have made these.


As usual I deny any responsibility for anything!


PETE’S WINE RECIPES


SPARKLING WINES


These recipes are not mine, they are from elsewhere & reflect the authors methods. Here is my personal thoughts on making sparkling wines:-


Make the wine as normal, check the gravity to ensure the wine is fermented out completely when & below 994 (0.994). Add any finings & when clear, rack it into a clean demijohn, add ONE crushed cCt & top-up to 4.5 litres.

After 3 months bottle the wine with some sugar (no more than 11g/litre or 8.25g/750ml) & a packet of Champagne yeast.


ELDERFLOWER “CHAMPAGNE”


30g dried elderflower

3 litres white grape juice OR 600ml white grape concentrate

560g sugar dissolved in 380ml hot water (syrup)

1 tsp Bentonite

1 tsp pectic enzyme

Champagne yeast


1  Pour the hot syrup over the dried elderflowers, add the juice/concentrate in a bucket, stir well & cover for 30min.

2  Top-up cold water to get 4 litres then stir in the enzyme & yeast. Cover closely for 3 days.

3  Strain into a demijohn & add the Bentonite etc. Ferment until completely dry - S.G. 993. Rack & dissolve in 30g sugar, mix well in & top up to just over 4.5 litres with cold water. Siphon into Champagne bottles, leaving a space of 25mm to top of the bottle, fit a plastic cork & wire down.

4  Store upright for 2-3 months before drinking.


ORANGE “CHAMPAGNE”


2 litre grape juice

1 litre orange juice

625g sugar dissolved in 420ml hot water (syrup)

1 tsp Bentonite

1 tsp pectic enzyme

Champagne yeast


1  Pour the syrup into a demijohn & allow to cool.

2  Pour in the fruit juices & add the yeast.

3  Fit airlock & place in warm place to ferment.

4  Gradually fill up to just over 4.5 litres with cold water as the fermentation slows.

5  Fine & rack when fermentation ceases - DO NOT add Campden tablet.

6  Prime 6 Champagne bottles with 1 tsp sugar, fill to 25mm of bottle top, fit cork & wire down, use a washer on top of a real cork to prevent the wire cutting through.

7  Keep at fermentation temperature for 4 weeks. Then store in a cool place. Can be drunk after "in-bottle" fermentation ceases, chill before drinking.


PASSION FRUIT “CHAMPAGNE”


1 litre passion fruit juice

2 litre grape juice

550g sugar dissolved in 370ml hot water (syrup)

1 tsp Bentonite

1 tsp pectic enzyme

Champagne yeast


PEACH “CHAMPAGNE”


2.5Kg fresh ripe peaches

1litre grape juice

700g sugar dissolved in 470ml hot water

1 tsp Bentonite

1 tsp pectic enzyme

Champagne yeast


Stone & crush peaches, steep in 3l water for 2-3 days with 1 crushed Campden tablet & enzyme. Strain, add syrup, Bentonite & yeast.  Secondary fermentation is started after 6 months.


PINEAPPLE “CHAMPAGNE”


2 litre pineapple juice

650g sugar dissolved in 440ml hot water

1 tsp Bentonite

1 tsp pectic enzyme

Champagne yeast


RHUBARB “CHAMPAGNE”


2Kg rhubarb

1100g sugar

1 tsp Bentonite

1 tsp pectic enzyme

Champagne yeast


NOTE:- Rhubarb, like strawberries, gives its juice easier after freezing.


ROSE “CHAMPAGNE”


2 litre grape juice

1 litre rose petals

700g sugar dissolved in 470ml hot water

1 tsp Bentonite

1 tsp pectic enzyme

Champagne yeast


1  Gather the blown rose petals on a dry summers evening, place immediately in a bucket, pour on 1l boiling water, cover & leave overnight.

2  The following morning add the grape juice, the cooled syrup & all the other ingredients.

3  After a week, strain into a demijohn etc.

4  Gradually fill up to just over 4.5 litres with cold water as the fermentation slows.

5  Fine & rack when fermentation ceases - DO NOT add Campden tablet.

6  Prime 6 Champagne bottles with 1 tsp caster sugar (2 large sultanas,  raisins or a sugar cube can be used), fill to 25mm of bottle top, fit cork & wire down, use a washer on top of a real cork to prevent the wire cutting through.

7  Keep at fermentation temperature for 4 weeks. Then store in a cool place. Can be drunk after "in-bottle" fermentation ceases, chill before drinking.


WINES


APPLE - GENERAL


There are lots of recipes for both crab & mixed apple wines, they seem very interchangeable. Also, like some other wines, there seems to be different ways of making them, if in doubt go for the easiest or take the easiest components of several recipes to make your own. Always write down your exact ingredients & method. If it's good then you can do the same (or similar) again, if it's not too good then examine your recipe & method, you may find where you went wrong.


APPLE JUICE 1


Drinkable after 3 month, improves if kept for 6 months.


3 litre natural apple juice (no preservatives)

675g sugar boiled in 0.5 litre water & cooled (syrup)

3 heads fresh elderflowers or 30g dried

1 Vit. B tablet

700g sugar dissolved in 450ml hot water

1 tsp yeast nutrient

1 tsp Bentonite

1 tsp pectic enzyme

(German) yeast in a starter bottle


APPLE JUICE 2


1 litre natural apple juice (no preservatives)

500ml grape juice/100ml conc.

800g sugar

5g tartaric acid

5g pectic enzyme

5g Bentonite

5g yeast nutrient

5g yeast


Note:- A stronger wine with extra body can be made by the addition of a can of peaches in syrup, ferment for a week in a bucket, then sieve into a demijohn.


APPLE - CRAB


2Kg crab apples

800g sugar

1 litre grape juice

1 tsp pectic enzyme

1 tsp Bentonite

1 tsp yeast nutrient (optional)

1 tsp yeast


APPLE - CRAB


1.8Kg crab apples

1Kg sugar dissolved in 0.5 litres boiling water

180g grape concentrate

2 tsp pectic enzyme

1 tsp yeast nutrient

1 tsp Bentonite

1 tsp yeast


APPLE - CRAB


Keep for a year or longer.


2.5Kg crab apples

750g sugar

250g grape concentrate

1 tsp pectic enzyme

1 tsp Bentonite

1 tsp yeast nutrient

1 tsp Champagne yeast


APPLE - CRAB


2-3Kg crab apples

1Kg sugar

280g grape concentrate

1 tsp pectic enzyme

1 tsp Bentonite

1 tsp yeast nutrient

1 tsp Bordeaux yeast


APPLE - CRAB


2.25Kg crab apples

1Kg sugar dissolved in 1 litre boiling water (syrup)

1 litre grape juice

2 tsp pectic enzyme

1 tsp Bentonite

1 tsp yeast nutrient

1 tsp yeast


APPLE - MIXED


2-2.5Kg mixed apples

1Kg sugar (initially)

450g sugar (stirred in at stages)

0.5 litre grape concentrate

2 tsp pectic enzyme

1 tsp Bentonite

1 tsp yeast nutrient

1 tsp yeast


APPLE - MIXED


Drinkable after 3-4 month but improves up to 18 months.


3.5Kg mixed apples (inc. 500g crab if possible)

900g sugar

300g grape juice

1 tsp pectic enzyme

1 tsp Bentonite

1 tsp yeast nutrient

1 tsp Bordeaux or GP yeast


APPLE & ELDERFLOWER 1


Medium dry table wine,drinkable after 3 month, improves if kept for 6 month.


3 litre natural apple juice (no preservatives)

3 heads fresh or 30g dried elderflower

675g sugar boiled in 0.5 litre water & cooled (syrup)

5g citric acid

5g pectic enzyme

5g yeast nutrient

5g German-style yeast in a starter bottle


APPLE JUICE 2


Light table wine, similar to a Hock or Moselle. Drinkable 1 month after bottling.


2 litre natural apple juice (no preservatives)

500ml grape juice (no preservatives)

800g sugar

5g pectic enzyme

5g Bentonite

5g yeast nutrient

5g yeast


APRICOT (OR PEACH) 1


Light dry wine.

Note: Peach needs extra acid - 5g generally


225g dried or 2Kg fresh apricots/peaches

725g sugar

5g citric acid

5g pectic enzyme

5g Bentonite

5g yeast nutrient

5g yeast

(Note Vit. B, citric & tartaric acids not used in similar recipes).


APRICOT (OR PEACH) 2


A medium wine.

900g fresh ripe apricots/peaches

1.1Kg sugar

5g tartaric acid (10g for peach)

5g pectic enzyme

5g Bentonite

5g yeast nutrient

5g yeast


Notes:- Make with 1Kg sugar, adding the remainder after racking & sulphiting.


APRICOT (OR PEACH) 3


225g dried apricots[peaches]

1Kg sugar

5g tartaric acid [10g for peach]

2.5g citric acid [5g for peach]

5g pectic enzyme

5g Bentonite

5g yeast nutrient

5g yeast


CANNED FRUIT


See tinned fruit & gooseberry & apricot.


DAMSON


450g damsons add 2ppt malic acid to 4.5l wine.


DAMSON 1


Sweet red dessert. Stop when the SG reaches about 1015.


2.2Kg damsons

340g sultanas

450g each of white & demerara sugar

500g peeled bananas

300ml red conc.

15g pectic enzyme

5g Bentonite

5g yeast nutrient

5g Port yeast


DAMSON 2


Social red dessert.


1.4Kg damsons

1.4Kg sugar in 1l water (cooled)

280ml red conc.

(60g dried or 225g fresh/frozen elderberries/bilberries can add colour)

10g pectic enzyme

5g Bentonite

5g nutrient

5g Bordeaux yeast


1  Wash & soak the damsons in a weak sulphite solution for 24 hrs, drain, stone & crush the damsons in a bucket, add 2  litre cold water, the sugar syrup & all the other ingredients. Keep covered in a warm place for 5-6 days, stirring daily.

2  Strain coarsely into a demijohn, fit airlock etc.

3  Fine & rack after the wine has finished fermenting, top up to just over 4.5 litres with cold water.

4  Add 1.5g potassium sorbate & sweeten to taste (S.G. 1010-1015).

5  Rack onto a crushed Campden tablet.

NOTE damsons take a take 12-18 months to bulk mature.


DAMSON 3


Dry table wine. Increasing the damsons to 2.5k & using 1l conc. (& feeding in the sugar !!) gives a rich, heavy dessert wine approaching a port.


1.3-1.8Kg ripe damsons

800g sugar

110-170ml red conc. (optional)

10g pectic enzyme

5g Bentonite

5g nutrient

5g yeast


DAMSON 4


A dessert wine, F.G. 1020 after sweetening.


2Kg stoned damsons

500g chopped raisins

1Kg white sugar

15g pectic enzyme

5g Bentonite

5g nutrient

5g Port yeast


DAMSON 5


A table wine.


1.5Kg stoned damsons

250g chopped raisins

800g white sugar

10g pectic enzyme

5g Bentonite

5g nutrient

5g yeast


Add enzyme, cCt etc for 1 day, ferment on pulp for 5 days.


DAMSON & PEACH


Red social wine.


1.35 Kg ripe damsons

850g tinned peaces in syrup

675g sugar

170ml red conc. (optional)

10g pectic enzyme

5g Bentonite

5g nutrient

5g yeast


Make as above (Damson 3), sweeten up to 1015 if necessary.


FRUIT JUICE 1


Basic table wine, drinkable after 3 month, does not improve much after that.


2 litre natural orange juice (no preservatives)

1 litre natural apple juice (no preservatives)

675g sugar dissolved in 0.5 litres hot water & cooled (syrup)

5g pectic enzyme

5g Bentonite

5g nutrient

5g yeast


Variations:- Orange can be replaced by grapefruit or passion fruit etc.

All juices can be replaced by grape juice.


1  Pour juices, sugar syrup & other additives into demijohn, fit airlock & leave for 12 hrs.

2  Add the yeast starter, top up with water (or juice) to just over 4.5 litres with & re-fit the airlock. Ferment to dryness in warm place, shaking daily for the first week to encourage fermentation.

3  Place in the cool, when settle & clear rack & add crushed Campden tablet.

FRUIT JUICE 2


Drinkable after 3 month, does not improve much after.


3 litre grape juice (red or white - no preservatives!).

675g sugar boiled in 0.5 litre water & cooled (syrup)

5g pectic enzyme

5g Bentonite

5g nutrient

5g yeast


Other juices can be used but strong ones like grapefruit are best mixed in equal amounts with apple juice.


1  Pour juices, sugar syrup & other additives into demijohn & swirl well. Add yeast starter & top up with water to shoulder, fit airlock. Ferment to dryness in warm place (starts after approx. 12 hrs).

2  Place in the cool, when settled & clear, rack & add a crushed Campden tablet.


FRUIT JUICE 3


3 litre cartons fruit juice (any - no preservatives!).

480g sugar in 0.5 litres hot water & cooled

5g pectic enzyme

5g yeast nutrient

5g Bentonite

Wine yeast


Pour juices, sugar syrup & other additives into demijohn & swirl well. Start yeast, add to demijohn, shake well & fit an airlock. Keep in warm place for 3-4 days, top up with just over 4.5 litres with & ferment to dryness in warm place (3-6 weeks)

Fine & rack & add crushed Campden tablet, leave for about 3 months.

FRUIT JUICE 4


2 litre natural juice (no preservatives)

900g sugar

5g tartaric acid

5g pectic enzyme

5g yeast nutrient

5g yeast


FRUIT JUICE 5


Drinkable after 3 month, does not improve much after.


1 litre natural orange juice (no preservatives!)

1 litre natural apple juice (no preservatives!)

1 litre grape juice (no preservatives!).

570g sugar in 400ml hot water & cooled (syrup, see below)

5g pectic enzyme

5g Bentonite

5g nutrient

5g yeast


Extras:- a few squashed grapes, a couple of squashed cherries & a few slices of banana (intended to add a few subtle flavours).


1  Pour juices (not grape), sugar syrup & other additives into demijohn & swirl well. Add yeast etc. & top up with grape to just below shoulder, fit airlock. Ferment to dryness in warm place (starts after a few hrs), shaking daily for first week.

2   Place in the cool, when settle & clear rack & add crushed Campden tablet. Rack again if necessary & top up with juice.


GINGER 1


50g bruised ginger

350g chopped raisins

1.25Kg sugar

2 Oranges

2 Lemons

Yeast & nutrient etc.


1  Boil the ginger & thinly peeled fruit rinds for 30min in 850ml water, pour onto the sugar & raisins in a bucket.

2  When cool add the fruit juices, yeast & nutrient, cover & keep warm to ferment, stirring daily for 1 week.

3  Strain into demijohn etc.


GINGER 2


60g root ginger

1Kg sugar

285ml grape concentrate

1 tsp tartaric/citric acid

1 tsp yeast

1 tsp yeast nutrient


1  Crush (bruise) the ginger with pliers or a hammer, place in a pan with the acid, sugar, & 2 litre boiling water, stirring well to dissolve the sugar. Boil rapidly for 20min.

2  When cool strain into a demijohn & add 2 litre cold water, add the grape juice, yeast & nutrient, then fit airlock etc. Ferment to dry (S.G. 1000 or less).

3  Rack & top-up with cold water & add crushed Campden tablet. Sweeten if required with a non-fermenting sweetener.


GINGER 3


35g root ginger

350g white sugar

100g Demerara sugar

450g sultanas

2 lemons

1 tsp yeast


1  Boil the ginger for ½hr in 2.25 litre water & strain onto the white sugar & sultanas.

2  Add 2 litre cold water, the lemon juice & the yeast.

3  Stir daily for 1 week, then strain into a demijohn (do not top up), fit airlock & ferment for 2 week, then add the Demerara sugar in the minimum of water.

4  Rack after 1 month.


Note:- Ginger wine is a medium-sweet wine with an S.G. of 1005-1010 & should be fed with 50g quantities of Demerara sugar until this is achieved.


GINGER 4


85g bruised ginger

500g chopped raisins

4 ripe bananas

900g light brown sugar

1 large lemon

Small pinch cayenne powder

Green colouring liquid

Yeast & nutrient etc.


GINGER 5


A medium dry white wine


75g fresh root ginger

450g chopped sultanas

900g bananas

1.1Kg granulated sugar

5g citric acid

5g pectic enzyme

5g yeast

5g nutrient


GINGER 6


50g fresh root ginger

500g chopped sultanas

1Kg granulated sugar

100g Demerara sugar

1 banana

5g pectic enzyme

5g yeast

5g nutrient

Green colouring liquid (if required)


1  Boil the ginger & thinly peeled fruit rinds (zest) for 30min in 2 litre water, the sugar is dissolved in during the last 5min then pour onto the chopped raisins & the peeled banana in a bucket.

2  When cool add the pectic enzyme, the fruit juices, yeast & nutrient, make up to 4l, cover & keep warm to ferment, stirring & pushing down the "crust" twice daily for 1 week.

3  Strain into a demijohn, gently squeezing the solids (do not top up), fit airlock & ferment for 2 week, then add the Demerara sugar in the minimum of water until the required degree of sweetness is obtained.

4  Rack after 1 month onto a crushed Campden tablet & add the green colouring liquid as required.

5  Mature in bulk for 2 month then bottle, this wine improves with age.


Note:- Ginger wine is a medium-sweet wine with an S.G. of 1005-1010 & should be fed with 50g quantities of Demerara sugar until this is achieved.


GOOSEBERRY 1


A dry white table wine.


1Kg culinary gooseberries

900g sugar

170ml white grape concentrate

5g pectic enzyme

3g citric acid

5g nutrient

5g yeast


NOTES:- Ferment on the pulp for 5 days, sieve etc.


GOOSEBERRY 2


A dry white table wine.


900g green gooseberries

1 litre apple juice

675g sugar

170ml white grape concentrate

5g pectic enzyme

5g Bentonite

5g nutrient

5g yeast


(TINNED) GOOSEBERRY & APRICOT


A dry white table wine.


680g tin gooseberries in syrup

225g tin or fresh apricots or 115g dried

600g sugar

450g ripe bananas

280ml white grape concentrate

5g pectic enzyme

5g Bentonite

5g nutrient

5g yeast


GRAPE CONCENTRATE


1Kg white grape concentrate (Italian White)

280g sugar

5g pectic enzyme

5g Bentonite

5g nutrient

5g yeast


GRAPEFRUIT


NOTE:- Grapefruit not really recommended as it has a strong bitter taste, O.K. for an aperitif. Personally I was not too keen on this.


Basic medium dry table wine, drink when young.


540g tinned grapefruit segments in syrup

1 litre natural grape juice (no preservatives)

900g sugar dissolved in approx. 0.75 litre hot water

5g pectic enzyme

5g yeast nutrient

5g re-hydrated yeast in a cup with lukewarm water, 1 tsp sugar, drop of orange juice.


GRAPEFRUIT 1


Basic medium dry table wine, drink when young.


540g tin of grapefruit segments in syrup

0.5 litre natural grape juice (no preservatives)

900g sugar boiled in 0.5 litre water

5g pectic enzyme

5g yeast nutrient

5g Bordeaux yeast in a starter bottle


Crush segments in bucket with syrup, pour on 1.5 litre boiling water, add sugar solution & cover. When cool (21°C) add grape juice, all other ingredients & yeast starter, stir well & re-cover. Stir daily for 5 days ONLY then strain into demijohn, top up just over 4.5 litres with cold water & fit airlock. Ferment to dryness in a warm place.

Fine & rack when clear.

Place where cool to settle & clear then rack & add a crushed Campden tablet.


GRAPEFRUIT 2


540g tin unsweetened grapefruit juice

900g sugar boiled in 0.5 litre water

Pectic enzyme

Yeast & nutrient


KIWIFRUIT


A medium sweet wine with a delicate green tint.


1Kg Kiwifruit

1Kg sugar boiled in 0.5 litre water

5g pectic enzyme

5g Bentonite

5g nutrient

5g yeast


LYCHEE


A light dry white wine, matures quickly.


900g fresh or 2 x 310g tinned lychees in syrup

1Kg sugar in 0.7 litre water (cooled)

5g pectic enzyme

5g citric acid

5g nutrient

5g yeast


Note:- Grape juice/concentrate or raisins, fresh fruit may be added to improve the bouquet, taste, vinosity etc. (this applies to most wines).


1  Start yeast working in a cup with tepid water.

2  Tip the tinned fruit & syrup into a bucket chop & crush the fruit with a potato-masher, if using fresh fruit skin & stone over the bucket to catch any drips of juice. Add the sugar solution,  litre cold water & ALL the other ingredients & the yeast starter.

3  Cover & keep in a warm place for 5 or 6 days, stirring at least once daily to break the fruit cap.

4  Strain (without pressure) into a clean demijohn, top up just over 4.5 litres with cold water, fit airlock etc. & ferment out.

5  Rack onto a crushed Campden tablet, sweeten if required, bottle when clear.


(TINNED) ORANGE


A medium wine.


1100g tinned or bottled orange juice

1100g sugar

5g pectic enzyme

5g tartaric acid

5g nutrient

5g yeast


PEACH 1


1.5Kg fresh ripe peaches

1Kg sugar

Juice of 1 lemon  or 5g citric acid

5g pectic enzyme

General purpose yeast & nutrient


1  Slice stoned fruit into bucket with 6l cold water. Boil 1l water

stir in sugar until dissolved, add with other ingredients to the pulp, stir well, cover & keep in warm place.

2  Stir daily for 4-5 days to disperse CO2 & allow yeast to develop.

3  Strain into demijohn etc.


When clear, bottle & store for 6-8 month min.


(TINNED) PINEAPPLE


A medium wine, but a dry wine can be made using only 900g sugar.


1100g tinned or bottled unsweetened pineapple juice

1100g sugar

5g pectic enzyme

10g tartaric acid

5g nutrient

5g yeast


PLUM 1


2Kg plums

1.25k sugar

1 lemon

1 tsp yeast


1  Wash & stone the plums & place in bucket with the sugar & lemon juice. Pour on 2 litre boiling water, stirring well to dissolve the sugar.

2  Add a further 0.5 litre cold water & when cool add the yeast, cover & leave undisturbed in a warm place for 3 weeks.

3  Strain into demijohn, top up with cold water, fit airlock & ferment to dryness. Taste & if it is not medium-sweet add 100g sugar & re-ferment.

4  Bottle when correct sweetness is obtained.


PLUM 2


1.4Kg plums

1Kg sugar

2 tsp pectic enzyme

1 tsp Bentonite

1 tsp yeast

1 tsp yeast nutrient


PLUM 3


2.5Kg plums

850g sugar

Pectic enzyme

Yeast

RAISIN


Light dry table wine, can be drunk immediately but improves on keeping.


450g light-coloured raisins

725g sugar

5g citric acid

2g tartaric acid

pectic enzyme

General purpose yeast & nutrient


1  Chop/mince raisins into bucket, add sugar & 2 litre boiling water, stir until sugar is dissolved. Make up to 4.5 litre with cooled, boiled water & add rest of ingredients, stir well, cover & keep in warm place.

2  Stir daily for 3 days to break the fruit cap. Allow to ferment for further 4 days.

3  Strain into demijohn, top up just over 4.5 litres with cooled boiled water, fit airlock & allow to ferment out.


RAISIN/SULTANA


2Kg Raisins/sultanas

15g pectic enzyme

5g Bentonite

5g nutrient

5g Sauternes yeast


RHUBARB


GENERAL NOTES:- Rhubarb, like strawberries, gives its juice easier after freezing. To obtain most of the juice & colour, chop into small chunks & soak in 2 litre cold water plus a crushed Campden tablet for 4-5 days in a covered container. The best way however is to freeze (not fast Freeze - try the freezer part of the fridge) the chunks for a couple of days then let them thaw into the demijohn, the juice should practically drip out, wash & squeeze out the residue. Do not use hot extraction as this releases the very high acid content.


See RHUBARB PETE’S RHUBARB WINE.


RHUBARB 1


A refreshing red rose best drunk chilled.


2.5-3Kg rhubarb

1Kg sugar in 0.5 litre water (cooled)

250ml red grape juice

5g pectic enzyme

5g nutrient

5g yeast


RHUBARB 2


A white medium dry wine that may be drunk one month after bottling.

Rhubarb produces such a superior wine that many shows insist it is placed with fruit wines rather than with vegetable wines.


2.75Kg rhubarb

1.35Kg sugar

5g pectic enzyme

5g nutrient

5g yeast


RHUBARB 3


A refreshing red rose best drunk chilled.


1.4Kg rhubarb

1Kg sugar in 0.7 litre hot water (& cooled)

280ml red grape concentrate

5g pectic enzyme

5g nutrient

5g yeast


RHUBARB 4


A medium dry rose best drunk after a year. Stop at around 1002.


1.8Kg rhubarb

900g sugar in 0.6 litre water

280ml red grape concentrate

5g pectic enzyme

5g nutrient

5g yeast


RHUBARB 4


A medium dry wine. Stop at around 1002.


2.7Kg rhubarb

1.1Kg sugar

170ml white grape concentrate

5g pectic enzyme

5g nutrient

5g yeast


NOTES:- If you don't have a freezer or extractor, put the finely chopped rhubarb into a bucket, add the pectic enzyme + 3l litre cold water & crushed Campden tablet, cover & stand for 2-3 days, stirring occasionally. Strain & squeeze hard through fine muslin.


RHUBARB & ELDERFLOWER


A white medium dry wine that may be drunk one month after bottling.


2.7Kg rhubarb

1.35Kg sugar

6 medium elderflower heads

5g pectic enzyme

5g nutrient

5g yeast


RIBENA 1


600ml (½ bottle) Ribena

1.4Kg sugar

2.5g citric acid

5g nutrient

5g general purpose yeast


1  Pour Ribena & sugar into a large saucepan with 3 litre water & simmer for 10 min to drive off any preservatives. When cool, pour into a demijohn, fill to about the 4 litre level add the yeast & other additives & swirl well, fit airlock.

2  After 2 weeks, when the fermentation slows down, top-up just over 4.5 litres with cold water. Ferment to dryness in warm place.

3  Rack & add a crushed Campden tablet, bottle when settled & clear, add a non-fermenting sweetener if required.


RIBENA 2


A robust, fruity & immodest young wine, superb with roast meats, salads & Wenslydale cheese with French bread.


2 litre Ribena

1Kg sugar

4 ripe bananas

5g tartaric acid OR juice of  2 oranges & 2 lemons

General purpose yeast


RICE & RAISIN


Quick & easy table wine which can be drunk immediately.


900g raisins

900g rice

900g sugar boiled in 0.5 litre water & cooled (syrup)

Juice of 1 medium orange

Juice of 1 medium lemon

5g general purpose yeast


RICE & RAISIN


800g raisins

450g (short pudding) rice

1.1Kg sugar

2 oranges

10g citric acid

5g pectic enzyme

5g yeast nutrient

5g general purpose yeast


ROSE HIP 1


Similar to sherry, ready in 6-9 months.


1.75Kg ripe rosehips (2 or so frosts reduce bitterness)

1.2Kg sugar

1 lemon - juice & finely peeled rind

10g yeast


1  Cut off all stalks, wash & drain well, mince/chop up roughly & place in bucket with sugar, lemon rind & juice. Pour on boiling water, stirring well to dissolve sugar, when cool add yeast.

2  Ferment on the pulp for 14 days, stirring daily.

3  Strain through fine sieve into demijohn, top-up to neck with cooled boiled water & fit airlock, ferment fully in warm place, when still rack into clean demijohn & top up. After 6-9 month it is ready for bottling & drinking.


ROSE HIP 2


Light table wine.


1Kg rose hips or 225g dried rose hips

0.3 litre white grape concentrate

725g sugar

5g citric acid

2g tartaric acid

pectic enzyme

General purpose yeast & nutrient


ROSE HIP 3


Sherry type wine.


450g or 175g dried rose hips

100g (Valencia) raisins

1.125Kg/sugar

5g citric acid

2g tartaric acid

Pectic enzyme

General purpose yeast & nutrient


1  Cover rose hips with boiling water, when cool add enzyme to degrade the structure, allowing better extraction of juices & flavour. Mash well & leave 24hrs.

2  Add sugar & make up to 4.5 litre with boiling water, stir well to dissolve sugar & strain into another clean bucket, when cool add all other ingredients, over & keep warm for 3-4 days stirring daily.

3  Rack into demijohn, top-up, fit airlock etc.

FOR (3) ONLY:- When gravity falls to 1000, add 3 tbs sugar syrup until a total sugar content of 1.5Kg has been added.


ROSEHIP 4


1.5Kg rosehips

1.25Kg sugar

2 tsp citric acid

Yeast & nutrient


ROSE HIP 5


Medium sweet social wine.


900g rose hips

1.35Kg sugar

5g citric acid

pectic enzyme

General purpose yeast & nutrient


DO NOT use an electric mixer to crush the rosehips as the broken seeds impart a bitter flavour.


ROSE HIP


Medium sweet social wine.


900g rose hips

1 litre grape juice (no preservatives!).

1Kg sugar

5g citric acid (1 cup orange juice)

Pectic enzyme

General purpose yeast & nutrient


ROSEHIP & SWEET BASIL


Medium light table wine.


1 litre fresh Sweet Basil leaves or 60g dried

175g dried rosehips or rosehip shells

1Kg white sugar

2 oranges

2 lemons

5g pectic enzyme

5g yeast nutrient

5g yeast


ROSEHIP & BALM


Light white table wine.


2.25 litre fresh balm leaves or 60g dried

175g dried rosehips or rosehip shells

1Kg white sugar

2 oranges

2 lemons

1 litre grapefruit juice

5g pectic enzyme

5g yeast nutrient

5g yeast


1  Rinse & coarsely chop the leaves, place in 2 litre of water & bring

to the boil, remove from the heat, cover & leave overnight to infuse.

2  Dissolve the sugar in 1 litre boiling water & pour into a bucket, add the strained liquor, the rosehips, grapefruit, orange & lemon juices. When cool add the enzyme, chopped fruit zest, activated yeast & nutrient. Cover & stir daily for 5 days.

3  Strain into a demijohn etc. When clear rack into a clean demijohn with a crushed Campden tablet & leave to mature for a few months.


ROSE PETAL


A light dry table wine with a delicate bouquet. Fragrant white or yellow petals give a light coloured wine whilst deep red ones make a rose.

Pick the flowers on a nice dry sunny day when in full bloom


550ml rose petals

550ml white grape conc.

900g sugar

5g pectic enzyme

5g yeast nutrient

5g yeast

1  Dissolve the sugar in 2 litre boiling water, allow to cool, pour into a demijohn, add the other ingredients (not the petals) & ferment for a week.

2  Pick the petals (slightly compress to fill a pint pot), place in a Pyrex or plastic bowl & pour on 0.5 litre boiling water, allow to cool to room temp. then add to the demijohn. Fit airlock etc. & ferment for a week.

3  Strain into a clean demijohn to remove the petals then ferment to dry.

4  Finish as usual & sweeten to taste with sugar 2hrs before drinking, serve chilled.


STRAWBERRY 1


A sweet wine, the taste & aroma of the fruit do not suit dry wines.


1.4Kg strawberries (can be frozen - don't look good but easy to use)

1.4Kg sugar

5g pectic enzyme

5g yeast nutrient

5g (Burgundy) yeast


1  Boil 900g sugar in 1 litre water, allow to cool. Meanwhile wash the "hulled" fruit in a weak sulphite solution, rinse in clean water, drain, place in a bucket & mash with a potato-masher etc., & pour on the sugar solution (syrup). Add 2.5 litre cold water & all the other ingredients, cover & ferment for a week, stirring twice daily to break up the fruit cap.

2  Strain into a demijohn & ferment out.

3  Rack & top up just over 4.5 litres with cold water, the wine should taste dry & have a gravity of about 1000, add 225g sugar as a syrup & leave to ferment out.

4  Repeat stage 3.

5  Rack onto a crushed Campden tablet & taste, if further sweetening is required use a proprietor wine sweetener, or, if using sugar, add 5g of potassium sorbate first.


STRAWBERRY 2


A pale rose medium table wine, drinkable after 6 month. Stop around 1002.


1.8Kg strawberries

1.1Kg sugar

5g tartaric acid

5g pectic enzyme

5g yeast nutrient

5g yeast


SULTANA


See raisin.


TINNED FRUIT 1


SEE ALSO GOOSEBERRY & APRICOT, ORANGE, PINEAPPLE.


A light dry wine which can be sweetened if required. Ready in less than 1 year.


3 x 425g tins fruit in syrup

285ml grape concentrate

675g sugar dissolved in 1l hot water

5g citric acid

5g pectic enzyme

5g nutrient

5g general purpose yeast


1  Start yeast working in a cup with tepid water.

2  Tip the fruit & syrup into a bucket chop & crush the fruit, add the hot syrup, 2 litre cold water & ALL the other ingredients apart from the yeast & concentrate. Stir well & cover for 12 hours (this apparently allows the enzyme time to work), then add the yeast starter.

3  Cover & keep in a warm place for 2 days, stirring at least once daily to break the fruit cap.

4  Strain (without pressure) into a clean demijohn, add the grape concentrate & top just over 4.5 litres with cold water, fit airlock etc. & ferment out.

5  Rack onto a crushed Campden tablet, sweeten if required, leave to mature, racking when necessary, then bottle.


TINNED FRUIT 2


1.5Kg tins fruit in syrup

0.25 litre grape concentrate

675g sugar dissolved in 1l hot water

10g citric acid

5g pectic enzyme

5g nutrient

5g general purpose yeast


TINNED FRUIT 3


A light dry wine which can be sweetened using a proprietors wine sweeter  if required. Ready in less than 1 year.


1700g tins fruit in syrup (apricots/peaches)

255g sultanas

675g sugar

15g tartaric acid

5g pectic enzyme

5g nutrient

5g general purpose yeast


NOTES:- Ferment on the pulp for 4 days, sieve etc.

675g dried fruit can be used & omit the acid for apricots, 5g for peaches.


GENERAL


MEASURES


1 oz = 28.35 g, all weights are rounded to nearest 5 g.


SOLID                        LIQUID


½ oz = 15 g               ½fl oz = 15 ml

 1 oz = 30 g                1fl oz = 30 ml

 2 oz = 55 g                2fl oz = 55 ml

 3 oz = 85 g                3fl oz = 85 ml

 4 oz = 115 g              4fl oz = 115 ml

 5 oz = 140 g              5fl oz = 140 ml

 6 oz = 170 g

 7 oz = 200 g

 8 oz = 225 g

 9 oz = 255 g        1 oz/gall ~ 30 g/4.5 litre

10 oz = 285 g

11 oz = 310 g

12 oz = 340 g

13 oz = 370 g

14 oz = 400 g

15 oz = 425 g

16 oz = 455 g  


1 tsp = 5g,   1 dsp = 10g,   1 tbs = 15g.



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