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This is the small print where I deny everything and refuse to take any responsibility for anything. Any opinions given should not be taken as facts & any facts given should not be taken as opinions. As an extra precaution all the really small print is in white text, this is copyrighted .


E. & O. E.


Copyright www.petespintpot.co.uk  2008. First published 17 October 2008, last updated  11 October 2017.


Pete’s Pint Pot is dedicated to the home production & sensible drinking of beer, wine, cider & meads plus a little bit of china painting & a few bits of photograph tampering.


If you are affected by any of the articles on this site or any of the issues raised in them, I truly feel very sorry for you.


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famously said to brother Groucho,


  “Everybody knows there ain't no

     Sanity Clause!”



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Hops
#Home #INSOMNIACS

             The humble hop (Humulus lupulus) is a perennial climber with a left-hand thread

& is a member of the Cannabaceae species which can grow to over 6m. The female flowers

(hops) are used to make hopped beers. They are mainly used to add bitterness, flavour,

aroma & stability antiseptic, “keeping” qualities to beers.


The male (hop) is generally considered to be useless & redundant.


The main components consist of:-


Resins consist of two main acids, alpha & beta acids.


Alpha acids (sometimes denoted as α-acids or just AA) are bittering compounds. The main

alpha acids are humulone, adhumulone, cohumulone, posthumulone & prehumulone which

give our beer bitterness, flavour, keeping quality, they also help to maintain the beer’s

head, have a antibiotic effect to preserve our beer, but, in order to do these things, the

alpha acids must be isomerised (converted to iso-alpha acids) by boiling.


Beta acids (β-acids or just BA; the main ones are lupulone, colupulone & adlupulone) do not isomerise during the wort boil & contribute very little to the flavour of the beer but they contribute to beer's aroma, high beta acid hop varieties are often added towards the end of the wort boil for additional aroma (the boiling action tends to reduce the aroma), “dry” hopping is sometimes employed.


Gamma acids (humuliones) & delta acids (hulupones) do not add flavoured compounds.


Hop flowers contain many different oils, the main essential oil lupulin, a yellow, waxy substance that gives flavour & aroma to beers. Lupulin also contains humulone (AA) & lupulone (BA) which possess antibiotic properties. Lupulin also has relaxing effects on the body & mind, promoting sleep. See ee HOP PILLOW. PILLOW.


Hops add tannins to beer which leads to astringency, too long a boil may cause too much tannin to be extracted from the hops. Besides the effect on the flavour the use of hops in making beer has apparently an influence on the “germinative flora”. They have antiseptic qualities & thus influence the “keeping” qualities of the beer.


So much for the humble hop!


General notes.


The longer hops are boiled the greater the bitterness up to a certain point, but however, the optimum flavour is obtained after about 20 mins & for the aroma, the maximum is reached after just 7 or 8m mins boil.


The so-called “Noble” hops are varieties which are low in bitterness & high in aroma, the ratio between the alpha & beta acids is around 1:1 whereas the ratio for “normal” hops is about 2:1. They are the Hallertau Mittelfrüh, Tettnanger, Spalt Spalter & Saaz. (Žatec) varietys.


Hard water can bring out harshness from the hops, especially with the high alpha types.


The internationally recognised standards for measuring bitterness in beer are the interchangeable European Bittering Unit (EBU) or the equivalent International Bittering Unit (IBU), I will be using the term EBU where


                                                          1 EBU = 1 mg isomerised alpha acid in 1 litre, OR 1  ppm iso-alpha acid.


Most beers fall between 12-70EBUs, the heavier gravity beers tend to contain more bitterness. "Light" ales such as mild, brown ale, sweet stout, wheat beer, British & Munich type Lagers tend to be around 15-25, Pilsner 25-30, bitters around 25-35, IPA/stouts/porters 35-45 & Barley wines 60-70. For more information see BJCP.


Note the alpha acid content is only a guide & can be affected by age, storage conditions etc. & the “typical” figures quoted can vary by over ± 20%. Seedless hops tend to be 10 or 20% higher in acid as the seeds have none. Target are normally seeded but have a low seed count.


SUBSTITUTIONS: When substituting one hop for another don’t forget to amend the quantities to compensate for the different alpha acid contents.


                                            New hop wt = old hop wt x new hop AA / old hop AA


Example:

Suppose you wished to replace Goldings, alpha acid 5.5% for 60g Fuggles hops 4.5% alpha acid then


                                             New hop wt = old hop wt x new hop AA / old hop AA


Then                       weight of Goldings = 60g x 4.5% / 5.5%

                                                                 = 41.5g say.


This simple formula can also be used when your hop AA is different to that quoted in your recipe.


The higher alpha acid hops tend to be hybrids & can give a harshness to the beer especially in hard water areas, that is why Target etc. are generally mixed with mellower (aroma) hops & the best beers tend to use the Fuggles & Goldings varieties.

If exposed to light & heat, hops deteriorate rapidly. Aroma can disappear in hours & alpha acids are dramatically reduced in days. Freshness will be maintained if they are stored in a cool, dry place. Well-kept OLD hops keep their preservative powers & most of their bitterness, which becomes less harsh & the flavour/aroma mellower.

Here is a simple formula for determining the weight of hops in grams required to brew to a specified EBU value:


                 Bitterness (EBU) = wt hops (g) x hop utilization (%) x alpha acid (%) / vol. brewed (l) x 10


OR                      wt hops (g) = {Bitterness (EBU) x Vol. brewed (l) x 10} / (hop utilization (%) x alpha acid (%)


EXAMPLE


Suppose we wish to brew 23l beer with a bitterness of 30 EBU using Goldings hops (5.3% alpha acid). We will assume a 20% hop utilisation.


So                       wt hops (g) = {30 (EBU) x 23(l) x 10)} / {20(%) x 5.3(%)} = 6900 / 106

                                               = 65g


IMPORTANT: This calculation is for the “bittering” or “copper hops”, much less bitterness is extracted from late hops owing to the short associated boil.


Hops are used for three specific purposes, they have natural preserving properties, they add bitterness, they combine with the malt to give the flavour & aroma.


At the beginning of the boil the “bittering” or “copper” hops are added, they must be boiled in the wort as the alpha acids, which provide the bitterness, are insoluble until they are isomerised by the long boil. Unfortunately aromas & flavours tend to “evaporate” during this boil & so it is common practice to add “late” or “aroma” hops towards the end the boil. Note that each hop has its own characteristics.


In general high alpha hops give a somewhat harsh bitterness, which could be unpleasant in a heavily hopped beer. These should be used in mildly hopped beers or in Stouts where the main flavour is derived from roasted grains. When brewing beers with a high hop profile, such as Bitters, Pilsners, Altbiers etc., only the finest aroma hops should be employed. Late in the boiling process, about 5 to 10 minutes from the end the flavour hops are added. These should always be aroma varieties. There are several methods used to create bouquet. Certainly only the freshest aroma hops should be used & these can be stirred into the wort when boiling is over & left to steep for a while. Alternatively the beer can be "dry hopped" after fermentation. This is done either in a conditioning tank (secondary fermenter) or a keg or cask.


Hops are generally divided into three categories:


Aroma Hops: These varieties are usually low in alpha acids but high in essential oils. Brewers wishing to create high class, heavily hopped beers should use aroma hops for all three purposes. The bitterness imparted by aroma hops such as Goldings or Tettnang is totally different from that derived from high alpha varieties such as Northern Brewer or Herald.


Dual-Purpose Hops: Some varieties, although high in alpha acids, have quite acceptable aroma properties. These can be used for boiling & late additions but are usually unsuitable for dry hopping.


Bittering (Copper) Hops: To avoid harshness use only where low bitterness levels are required. Can be used in dark beers employing large amounts of roasted grain.


NOTE:- As the following information is gathered from many different sources, some conflictions may occur, even allowing for natural variations in hop characteristics.


ADMIRAL (R40) (UK) ALPHA ACID 11.0 - 12.0%, BITTERING

A super alpha variety bred from CHALLENGER & NORTHDOWN, very popular with commercial brewery accountants as they grow vigorously & store well. Wes can use Admiral is the bittering hop in most British style beers, best when combined with aroma hops as it imparts very little aroma. Similar to TARGET.


AMARILLO (USA) 8%

Similar to CASCADE & CENTENNIAL but with its own aroma. Also has similarities to AHATANUM, CRYSTAL & CHINOOK.


BRAMLING CROSS (UK) 5-7%, AROMA

A crossbred BRAMLING GOLDING/Canadian wild hop hybrid with a distinctive (blackcurrant) aroma best suited to stronger dark beers, like WGV it is best when blended.

Examples: Cuckmere Haven Cuckmere Best; Harvey & Son Armada Ale; Newale Brewing Co. Anna Valley Ale.


BOADICEA (UK) 8-11%

Introduced to the UK from the US in 2002 Light floral & spicy characters with excellent bittering.

Examples: Lymestone Brewery Foundation Stone.


BREWERS GOLD (GER) 5.5%, DUAL PURPOSE/(AROMA)

Poor aroma; sharp bittering hop, Used for Pilsners & Lagers as there is no harshness, best used with the "noble" varieties like TETTNANG & HALLERTAUER MITTELFRUH.

Examples: Maclay & Co. Maclay 60/-, 70/-, 80/-, Fraoch Heather Ale.

Substitute: BULLION


BULLION (USA) 8%, DUAL PURPOSE

Poor aroma, sharp bittering & blackcurrant flavour when used in the boil. Typical use: bittering hop for British style ales, perhaps some finishing

Substitute: BREWER'S GOLD Bred from but unlike Goldings, has a fairly strong "American" taste, being replaced by high alphas like TARGET.


CASCADE (USA) 6.5%, AROMA

Strong spicy, floral, citrus (especially grapefruit) aroma all of its own. Typical use: bittering, finishing, dry hopping for American style ales & produces a fruity "Cascade nose" to beers owing to its abnormal levels of essential oils. Example: Wild's Brewery Wild Readhead; Bunce's Brewery Danish Dynamite. Sierra Nevada Pale Ale, Anchor Liberty Ale & Old Foghorn

Substitute: CENTENNIAL (Some say it cannot be substituted ???)


CENTENNIAL (USA) 7.5%, DUAL PURPOSE/(AROMA)

Spicy, floral, citrus aroma, clean bittering hop (A "supercharged" CASCADE ideal for strong Pale Ales & Barley Wines). Typical use: general purpose bittering, aroma, some dry hopping.

Examples: Sierra Nevada Celebration Ale, Sierra Nevada Bigfoot Ale

Substitute: CASCADE, COLUMBUS.


CHALLENGER (UK) 7.5%, DUAL PURPOSE

Devised as a GOLDINGS replacement, it has fine bitterness with a good aroma. Can brew excellent beers on its own but is generally combined with an aroma variety. Challenger is gradually becoming less popular as it gives way to more disease resistant varieties like the dwarf PIONEER.

Examples: Butterknowle Brewery Butterknowle Bitter.

Substitute: GOLDINGS.


CHINOOK (USA) 12.5%, BITTERING

Heavy spicy aroma; strong versatile bittering hop with good flavour, astringent in large quantities. The bitterness is not too harsh & so it can be used in many styles.

Examples: Sierra Nevada Celebration Ale, Sierra Nevada Stout.

Substitute: GALENA, EROICA, BREWER'S GOLD, NUGGET, BULLION


CLUSTER (USA) 7.5%, DUAL PURPOSE/ BITTERING

A typical USA hop with mild bitterness/aroma can be used in British brews.

Example: Winterhook Christmas Ale

Substitute: GALENA, CASCADE, EROCIA.


CRYSTAL (CFJ-HALLERTAU) (USA) 3.5%, AROMA

Mildly aromatic, pleasant, slightly spicy, typically used for aroma & flavour.

Substitute: HALLERTAUER MITTELFRUEH/HERSBRUCKER, MOUNT HOOD, LIBERTY.


EAST KENT GOLDINGS (UK) 5.5%, AROMA

Spicy/floral, earthy, rounded, mild aroma, spicy flavour. Quite economical owing to the high Alpha acid content. Typical use: bittering, finishing, dry hopping for British style ales

Example: Young's Special London Ale, Samuel Smith's Pale Ale, Fuller's ESB

Substitute: BRAMLING CROSS, GOLDINGS.


EROICA (USA) 13%, DUAL PURPOSE/BITTERING

Clean bittering hop.

Examples: Ballard Bitter, Blackhook Porter, Anderson Valley Boont Amber.

Substitute: NORTHERN BREWER, GALENA.


EXPERIMENTAL 21484 (USA) 4.5%, AROMA

Fine aroma hop. Typical use: finishing for German style lagers

Substitute: HALLERTAUER MITTELFRUEH.


FIRST GOLD (UK) 7%, BITTERING/AROMA

A high yielding dwarf bred from WGV with a GOLDING type aroma. The fairly high Alpha content makes it a good economical copper hop & its delicate spicy aroma is good for late/dry hopping.


FUGGLES (UK, USA) 4.5%, AROMA

Mild, soft, grassy, floral aroma. American grown are superior to British grown hops, used for Bitters & Pale Ales & unsurpassed for dark British styles & dark lagers. (Strong flavours useful in the stronger flavoured milds/brown ales.) AA content has gradually reduced over the years so it is now mainly used as an aroma hop.

Examples: Samuel Smith's Pale Ale, Old Peculier, Thomas Hardy's Ale Mansfield Riding Dark Mild; Holden’s Black Country Mild, Black Country Bitter, Black Country Stout; Goddard’s Fuggle-Dee-Dum.

Substitute BRAMLING CROSS or WILLAMETTE. EAST KENT GOLDINGS.


GALENA (USA) 13.5%, BITTERING

A strong, clean bittering hop, typical used as for general purpose bittering. Works well in stouts & very strong ales. Examples: Catamount Porter (USA).

Substitute: NORTHERN BREWER, EROICA, CLUSTER. An excellent substitute for the BULLION variety.


GLACIER (USA) 5.5%, DUAL PURPOSE

Tends to hide its bitterness but has good aroma & flavour.


GREEN BULLET (NZ) 13%, DUAL PURPOSE/(BITTERING)

Its aroma qualities (likened to STYRIANS) match its high bittering power. Excellent for beers & lagers.


GOLDINGS (WORCESTER) (UK) 5.3%, AROMA

Beautiful flowery aroma, tends to be replaced by the less assertive aromas of CHALLENGER & MOUNT HOOD. Low alpha & so tend to be mixed in the copper, good for late/dry hopping. Light in flavour, suitable for light ales & bitters.

Examples: Morrells Varsity, Graduate, & College Ale.

Substitute: CHALLENGER.


HALLERTAUER HERSBRUCKER (GER) 4%, AROMA

Pleasant, spicy/mild, noble, earthy aroma. Typical use: finishing for German style lagers, this classic lager hop with a fine aroma can be used to good effect in Bitters & all styles of German beer.

Examples: Mansfield Brewery Deakins Red Admiral; Harviestoun Brewery Schiehallion; B&T Brewery Edwin Taylor's Extra Stout. Wheathook Wheaten Ale

Substitute: HALLERTAUER MITTELFRUEH, MT. HOOD, LIBERTY, CRYSTAL


HALLERTAUER MITTELFRUH (GER) 5%, AROMA

Pleasant, spicy, noble, mild herbal aroma, one of the world's finest hops used in premium Pilsners, & finishing for German style lagers.

Examples: Sam Adams Boston Lager, Sam Adams Boston Lightship.

Substitute: HALLERTAUER HERSBRUCKER, MT. HOOD, LIBERTY, CRYSTAL


HALLERTAUER (NZ) 8.9%, AROMA/DUAL PURPOSE

Similar to PACIFIC variety but with a richer aroma that keeps its freshness, even in older beers. Perfect for strong lagers & robust bitters. Although expensive the high alpha acid content makes it extremely economical.


HERALD (UK) (W8) 11.5%, BITTERING

An early-maturing dwarf with the same male parent as FIRST GOLD with high bitterness & no harshness.


JESTER (UK) 8-9%, BITTERING/DUAL PURPOSE

An intense, punchy aroma with flavour notes of grapefruit & tropical fruits


LIBERTY (USA) 4%, AROMA

Bred from HALLERTAUER MITTELFRUH & keeps some of its properties but can be used in English ales where it displays some FUGGLES character. Fine, very mild aroma & finishing for German style lagers.

Examples: Black Bull Brewery Dovedale Bitter, Pete's Wicked Lager.

Substitute: HALLERTAUER MITTELFRUEH, HALLERTAUER HERSBRUCKER, MT. HOOD, CRYSTAL.


HORIZON (USA) 12%, DUAL PURPOSE

Half sister to NUGGET & substitute for MAGNUM. Quite mild with a floral/spicy aroma.


LUBLIN (PO) 3%, AROMA

An aroma/finishing hop reported to be a substitute for noble varieties.

Substitute: SAAZ, HALLERTAUER MITTELFRUEH/HERSBRUCKER, TETTNANG, MOUNT HOOD, LIBERTY, CRYSTAL.


MAGNUM (GER) 13%, BITTERING


MARYNKA (POL) 10.5% DUAL PURPOSE

Floral, resinous, herbal, spiciness, liquorice, aniseed, fennel & citrus flavour.


MILLENIUM (USA) 15%, BITTERING

Derived from & a substitute for NUGGET, surprisingly a fairly mild hop.


MOUNT HOOD (USA) 5%, AROMA

Mild, clean aroma, typical use: finishing for German style lagers. Originally bred from & almost indistinguishable from HALLERTAUER MITTELFRUH, possesses some GOLDINGS characteristics it can be used for both lager & ale where a mild aroma is needed.

Examples: Oakham Ales Jeffrey Hudson Bitter; Buffy's Brewery Polly's Folly; Old Chimneys Brewery Great Raft Bitter, Anderson Valley High Rollers Wheat Beer

Substitute: HALLERTAUER MITTELFRUEH, HALLERTAUER HERSBRUCKER, LIBERTY, TETTNANG


NEWPORT (USA) 15%, BITTERING


NORTHDOWN (UK) 8%, DUAL PURPOSE

Derived from NORTHERN BREWER as a replacement, has improved aroma. Suitable for heavier beers, excellent for bitters & Irish stouts, it is an ideal companion for FUGGLES or PROGRESS.

Examples: North Yorkshire Brewing Co. Erimus Dark; Dent Brewery Dent Bitter; Fuller's ESB.


NORTHERN BREWER (GER) 10.5%, BITTERING/(DUAL PURPOSE)

A fine, fragrant aroma; dry, clean, bittering hop. Typical use: bittering & finishing for a wide variety of beers. Originally a British hop but now grown only in Germany (called Hallertauer NB). Can be used in strong, dark beers or Lagers but needs aroma hops for best results. Being replaced by NORTHDOWN. (Markedly bitter hop, excellent in stouts.)

Examples: Wylye Valley Brewery Goldings Crystal Bitter, Old Peculier (bittering), Anchor Liberty (bittering), Anchor Steam (bittering, flavouring, aroma).

Substitute: HALLERTAUER MITTELFRUEH.


NUGGET (USA) 13%, BITTERING/DUAL PURPOSE

A heavy, spicy, herbal aroma; strong bittering hop. Primarily a bittering hop but with its pleasant aroma it is very versatile & economical, best in low bitterness beers where it will not be too assertive.

Examples: Sierra Nevada Porter & Bigfoot Ale, Anderson Valley ESB.

Substitute: CHINOOK.


OMEGA (UK) 8.0-9.0%, BITTERING/DUAL PURPOSE

Some CHALLENGER characteristics & getting rarer.

Examples: Bunce's Brewery Best Bitter, Benchmark, & Old Smokey; Crouch Vale Brewery Kursaal Flyer.


ORGANIC HALLERTAUER (NZ) 9.4%, AROMA

Stunning aroma, use for all lagers, high-class bitters & pale ales.


PACIFIC HALLERTAUER (NZ) 5.3%, AROMA

Bred from the MITTLEFRUH variety. A true "noble" style aroma, perfect for best quality lagers & summer ales.


PACIFIC GEM (NZ) 14%, DUAL PURPOSE

Has a blackberry aroma, suitable for most styles.


PALISADE (USA?) 8%, DUAL PURPOSE

Good aroma & decent acid, cross between Swiss TETTNANGER & open pollination.


PERLE (GER, USA) 8%, AROMA

Pleasant aroma; slightly spicy, almost minty bittering hop. Typical use: general purpose bittering for all lagers except Pilsner.

Examples: Sierra Nevada Summerfest & Pale Ale (USA).

Substitute: HALLERTAUER MITTELFRUEH


PHOENIX (TC105) 7.0-9.5%, DUAL PURPOSE

A tall variety that has come from the Dwarf breeding programme. It has some of the characteristics of dwarf plants, notably an ability to produce cones very well down the bine & not being particularly vigorous. The storage stability of the alpha-acid is exceptionally good, exceeding that of YEOMAN. It has an unusually high oil content & some seedless samples contain nearly 3% oil which gives a very pleasant aroma that has been likened to the (Wye) CHALLENGER.


PILOT (UK) 9-10%

Delicate aroma with hints of lemon & fresh mown grass

Examples: Lymestone Brewery Foundation Stone.


PIONEER (UK) (W10) 8%, DUAL PURPOSE

This vigorous semi-dwarf variety & sister of W8 has fine aroma & delicate bitterness. Alpha-acid contents are generally 8-10% but have been lower in some sites.


PRIDE OF RINGWOOD (Australia) 10%, BITTERING

Citric aroma; clean bittering hop.


PROGRESS (UK) 5.5%, AROMA

Intended as a FUGGLES replacement bred from WGV, it contains a fine aroma with a reasonably high alpha acid content & is best when combined with GOLDINGS in best Bitters & Pale Ales. Versatile with good flavour & aroma.

Examples: Hobson’s Best Bitter; Leatherbritches Belter; Mansfield Bitter.


SAAZ or ŽYTEC (CZECH REPUBLIC) 3.5%, AROMA

Delicate, mild, floral aroma. Typical use: finishing for Bohemian style lagers. The beautiful aroma with delicate bitterness makes it useful for many styles, vast quantities are used for high bitterness in Altbiers but it is a classic Pilsner hop.

Examples: Harviestoun Brewery Ptarmigan; Marches Ales Jenny Pipe's Summer Ale; Fuller's Summer Ale, Pilsner Urquell.

Substitute: TETTNANG (some would claim there is NO substitute), SPALTER.


SANATIAM (USA) 6%, AROMA

Similar to TETTNANGER, has noble characteristics.


SIMCOE (USA) 13%

A pine-like aroma, used in American ales.


SOVEREIGN (UK) 4.5-6.5%, DUAL PURPOSE

Floral, grassy & herbal with a hint of mint flavours. Bred from an open pollination made in 1995 at Horticulture Research International (HRI), Wye College in the UK & released in 2006, Sovereign is the granddaughter of Pioneer. Works well with Goldings in British bitters/pale ales.


SPALTER SELECT (SPALT) (GER) 4.5%, AROMA

Used for its fine delicate flowery aroma, suitable for lagers. Examples: Dusseldorf Altbiers. Mild, pleasant, slightly spicy. Typical use: aroma/finishing/flavouring, some bittering.

Substitute: SAAZ, TETTNANG


STERLING (USA) 7.5%, AROMA

Mt. HOOD/SAAZ cross, herby/spicy aroma with a floral/citrus hint.


STICKLEBRACT (NZ) 11.0 - 12.0%, DUAL PURPOSE

Like GREEN BULLET, Sticklebract a lovely hop that has similar qualities to the German NORTHERN BREWER.


STRISSELSPALT (Fr - Alsace) 4%, AROMA

Medium intensity, pleasant, similar to Hersbrucker.

Examples: Kronenbourg 1664

Substitute: HERSBRUCKER, GERMAN SPALT.


STYRIAN GOLDINGS (SLOVENIA, USA) 4.5%, AROMA

Essentially a seedless FUGGLE with a beautiful perfumy aroma, widely used in beers & lagers & the less malty English brews, good for late/dry hopping.

Examples: Tomlinson's Old Castle Brewery Sessions & De Lacy; Webster's Fountain Head Brewery Green Label Best, Ind Coope's Burton Ale, Timothy Taylor's Landlord.

Substitute: FUGGLES, WILLAMETTE


TARGET (UK) 10%, BITTERING

Generally used in beers with low hoppiness as its flavour is very assertive, combines well with fine aroma hops in Bitters & Pale Ales. The most widely grown hop in the UK. It is very economical & is used extensively in British Keg beers. Examples: Fuller's Hock; Morrells Brewery Strong Country Bitter.

Substitute: YEOMAN can replace Target & are mellower, BULLION.


TETTNANG(ER) (GER) 4-5%, AROMA

Fine, spicy aroma. Typical use: finishing for German style beers, usually found in the well-hopped Pilsners, this hop produces high bitterness without harshness & so can be use in Bitters & Pale Ales.

Examples: Gulpener Pilsener, Sam Adams Octoberfest, Anderson Valley ESB Plassey Brewery Bitter, Cwrw Tudno, & Dragon's Breath. Jever & Bitburger are two famous brands that employ Tettnang.

Substitute: SAAZ, SPALT.


TRADITION (GER) 3.0-4.7%, AROMA


VANGUARD (USA) 5.5%, AROMA

Similar to HALLERTAU.


WARRIOR (USA?) 16%, BITTERING

A mild hop that can act as substitute for NUGGET or COLUMBUS.


WGV (UK) 7.5%, AROMA

Whitbread Goldings Variety has both GOLDINGS & FUGGLES characteristics, they can make excellent ales but are usually combined with other varieties. A FUGGLES replacement.

Examples: Whitbread West Country Pale Ale, Whitbread Best Bitter.


WILLAMETTE (USA) 5%’ AROMA

Mild, spicy, grassy, floral aroma. Typical use: finishing/dry hopping for American/British style ales, originally bred from FUGGLES, it has a distinctive blackcurrant/herbal aroma suitable for all styles, especially where good hop characteristics are required. Fine aroma hop which can be readily used in any recipe calling for FUGGLES.

Examples: Old Chimneys Brewery Swallowtail IPA; Titanic Brewery Captain Smith's Strong Ale & White Star, Sierra Nevada Porter, Ballard Bitter, Anderson Valley Boont Amber.

Substitute: FUGGLES.


WORCESTER GOLDINGS (UK) See GOLDINGS


YEOMAN (UK) 6.5-8.0%, BITTERING

Mixes well with MOUNT HOOD & WILLAMETTE, similar to TARGET but more mellow, a good NORTHDOWN replacement, unsuitable for late hopping, best combined with other hops.

Examples: Lastingham Brewery Royal Oui; Butcombe Brewery Butcombe Bitter.


ŽATEC - See Saaz.


ZENITH 9%, BITTERING

High in essential oils, especially when seedless it has fairly good aroma for a bittering hop.


AND NOW THE HARD STUFF (Mainly nicked from Glenn Tinseth’s web site)


Many recipes in home brewing books have been formulated without regard for the alpha acid content of the suggested hops & rarely advise late hopping. This type of recipe will often produce a completely unbalanced beer with precious little hop flavour & aroma & should be used for guidance only. A far better way is to brew to alpha acid values as is practised commercially.


Utilization numbers are really an approximation. Each brew is unique; the variables for individual conditions, i.e., vigour of the boil, wort chemistry, or for losses during fermentation, are just too hard to get a handle on from the meagre amount of published data available. Then why do we bother, you ask? Because if we are all working from the same model & using roughly the same numbers, then we will all be in the same ballpark & can compare our beers without too much error. Plus, when the actual IBUs are measured in the lab, these models are shown to be pretty close.


If your hop utilisation is better than 20% you may find that the beer is too bitter for you. Hop utilisation is affected by a number of factors including the gravity of the wort & the length of the boil. You will quite often see it stated that late addition (aroma) hops do not contribute towards the final bitterness level of the beer. This is not true, hops boiled for as little as 15 minutes can significantly contribute towards bitterness. This factor must be borne in mind when brewing a recipe which calls for late hop additions.


Glenn's Hop Utilization Numbers


See below for how the numbers were derived-

At The Hop by Danny & The Juniors, 1958.

Annual 2015

Time
OG
mins
1000
1010
1020
1030
1040
1050
1060
1070
1080
1090
1100
1110
1120
1130
1140
0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
5
7.2
6.6
6.0
5.5
5.0
4.6
4.2
3.8
3.5
3.2
2.9
2.7
2.5
2.2
2.0
10
13.1
12.0
11.0
10.0
9.1
8.4
7.6
7.0
6.4
5.8
5.3
4.9
4.5
4.1
3.7
15
17.9
16.4
15.0
13.7
12.5
11.4
10.5
9.6
8.7
8.0
7.3
6.7
6.1
5.6
5.1
20
21.9
20.0
18.3
16.7
15.3
14.0
12.8
11.7
10.7
9.8
8.9
8.1
7.4
6.8
6.2
25
25.1
23.0
21.0
19.2
17.5
16.0
14.7
13.4
12.2
11.2
10.2
9.4
8.5
7.8
7.1
30
27.8
25.4
23.2
21.2
19.4
17.7
16.2
14.8
13.5
12.4
11.3
10.3
9.4
8.6
7.9
35
30.0
27.4
25.0
22.9
20.9
19.1
17.5
16.0
14.6
13.3
12.2
11.1
10.2
9.3
8.5
40
31.7
29.0
26.5
24.2
22.1
20.2
18.5
16.9
15.5
14.1
12.9
11.8
10.8
9.9
9.0
45
33.2
30.3
27.7
25.3
23.2
21.2
19.4
17.7
16.2
14.8
13.5
12.3
11.3
10.3
9.4
50
34.4
31.4
28.7
26.3
24.0
21.9
20.0
18.3
16.8
15.3
14.0
12.8
11.7
10.7
9.8
55
35.4
32.3
29.5
27.0
24.7
22.6
20.6
18.8
17.2
15.7
14.4
13.2
12.0
11.0
10.0
60
36.2
33.0
30.2
27.6
25.2
23.1
21.1
19.3
17.6
16.1
14.7
13.5
12.3
11.2
10.3
65
36.8
33.6
30.8
28.1
25.7
23.5
21.5
19.6
17.9
16.4
15.0
13.7
12.5
11.4
10.5
70
37.3
34.1
31.2
28.5
26.1
23.8
21.8
19.9
18.2
16.6
15.2
13.9
12.7
11.6
10.6
75
37.8
34.5
31.6
28.9
26.4
24.1
22.0
20.1
18.4
16.8
15.4
14.1
12.8
11.7
10.7
80
38.1
34.9
31.9
29.1
26.6
24.3
22.2
20.3
18.6
17.0
15.5
14.2
13.0
11.9
10.8
85
38.4
35.1
32.1
29.3
26.8
24.5
22.4
20.5
18.7
17.1
15.6
14.3
13.1
11.9
10.9
90
38.7
35.3
32.3
29.5
27.0
24.7
22.6
20.6
18.8
17.2
15.7
14.4
13.2
12.0
11.0

The following info. is derived from Glenn Tinseth’s web site.


Glenn’s Formulae:


The bitterness of a beer is a function of the wort gravity (G) & the boil time (T).


% Utilization = f(G) x f(T)


Where

                f(G) = 1.65 x 0.000125(0.001Gb - 1000)


&              f(T) = [1 – e-(0.04t)] / 4.15


The numbers 1.65 & 0.0125 in f(G) were empirically derived to fit the boil gravity (Gb) analysis data. In the f(T) equation, the number -0.04 controls the shape of the utilization vs. time curve. The factor 4.15 controls the maximum utilization value. This number may be adjusted to customize the curves to suit your own system. If you feel that you have a very vigorous boil or generally get more utilization from a given boil time or for any reason, you can reduce the number a small amount to 4 or 3.9. Likewise if you think that you are getting less utilization, then you can increase it by 1 or 2 tenths. Doing so will increase or decrease the utilization value for each time & gravity in the table.


Calculating the EBUs for each hop addition will help you to design your own beer recipes. You will not be a slave to any recipe book but will be able to take any beer style, any combination of malts, & plan the amount of hops to make it a beer you know you will like.


No doubt you often come across beer recipes quoting a hop boil time of 120 minutes, from the table above & the graph below it can be seen that anything above around 90 mins is going to be a waste of time & money.


Another useful observation is that for boil gravities gravities just above 1070, a 20% hop utilization is unattainable. To overcome this problem you have several options available:


1)   Add enough water to the boil to get a useable gravity, when finished, remove the hops & boil to reduce the volume to what is required - a very wasteful practice that will also loose hop aroma.


2)   Boil the hops with only half of the malts/sugars, add the rest at the end of the boil. If a fair amount of sugar is used in the recipe, a variation of this is to add the sugar after the boil.


3)   Re-calculate the boil time/volume for a lower, practical utilization figure. Calculators such as the free YoBrew Calculators should prove helpful here, I also think the free “Tinibuw” is an excellent bitterness calculator, freely available via the internet.


PRACTICAL EXAMPLES


1) If I wished to brew 10 litres of beer using a stockpot of 8 litre capacity, the safe maximum useable capacity is around 6 litres. I would like my beer to have an O.G. of around 1040 & a bitterness of around 30 EBU using a 0.9Kg can of malt extract (310º/Kg/l), sugar & EKG’s with 5.5% acid.


If I boil the hops with the extract only in 4 litres water then the S.G.  would be:-


                1000 + {(0.9Kg ext. x 310º) / 4 (litres)} = 1000 + {(279) / 4}

                                                                                 = 1070º say


From the above table or graph I can see that I need to boil the hops & malt extract for 70-75 minutes, the hot wort would then be sieved & sparged (washed out with hot water) onto the sugar until I ended up with 10 litres, stirring would dissolve the sugar. If I boiled the hops with the extract & the sugar then the boil gravity would be much higher & I would have difficulty in attaining my desired 20% utilization.


If I decided to use a boil volume of 6 litres then my new boil gravity would be

                                                1000 + {(279) / 6} = 1046º say


My boil time would now be reduced to just about 35 mins & adding the sugar to the boil is now a more practical proposition.

Using the table.


If we wanted to brew 23l or 5 UK galls or 6 US galls of beer with a bitterness of 35 EBU we could use 115g of 3.5% alpha hops.


Alternatively, for the same bitterness we could use 62g of 6.5% alpha acid or 34g of 12% hops etc., as you can see there are numerous possible variations.


Note that the cells to the top right of the table have been left blank, thus avoiding some ridiculously high hop quantities.


ISOMERISED hop extracts should not be boiled, they are not as good as using real hops & should only be used as a “fine tuner” to give a bit of extra bitterness, they are of course, used extensively in beer kits.


Ritchie Products Isomerized Hop extract is available in  57 & 28ml bottles & are sufficient for 90 & 45 litres respectively.


Adding 1ml of Ritchie’s iso hop extract in a litre of beer increases the bitterness by 69 EBU.


 Iso hop extract (ml) = vol. of beer (litres) x EBU / 69


Example, if I wished to add 15EBU to 23 litres of finished beer using iso hop extract


Then                          vol hop extract (ml) to add = vol. of beer (l) x Bitterness (EBU) / 69


                                                                                 = 23 (litres) x 15 (EBU) / 69


                                                                                  = 5 ml or 1 “standard” 5 ml teaspoon


HOP PELLETS are produced by milling hops then compressing them into pellets. The two main advantages are a longer useful life & a slightly higher utilization. So, instead of typically assuming a 20% utilization, we can assume 22% for hop pellets. In practice this means using fewer hops or reducing the hop boil volume/time.


DRYING YOUR OWN HOPS.  Freshly harvested hops contain about 76-84% moisture, we can assume this figure to be 80%, this needs to be reduced to 8-12% for our use.


1000g of “wet” hops will produce about 217g “dry” with a moisture content of 8%

1000g of “wet” hops will produce about 222g “dry” with a moisture content of 10%

1000g of “wet” hops will produce about 227g “dry” with a moisture content of 12%


The YoBrew Calculators “Beer Kit Calc’s Etc” may help you with the sums.


THE HOP PILLOW, A CURE FOR INSOMNIACS? There are many natural herbs & plants

that are said to help promote sleep. One popular natural insomnia remedy is said to be the hop,

another is the herb lavender. Our main concern is with with the hop (hence the title of the page) but

the “hop” pillow may be combined with lavender & various other plants.


To make a hop pillow, you will need:-

     A small muslin/cotton bag about A4 size or the material to make one (dimensions not at all critical).

     3-4 handfuls/cups hops flowers.

     (3-4 handfuls/cups lavender flowers - optional).


Method:

If you use “fresh” ingredients, dry the hops (& lavender - if used) in a conventional oven at around 100ºC (212ºF) for around 30 mins. OR, you will probably need to tie them in bunches & hang away from direct sunlight, for around 2 weeks.


Remove the stalks from the flowers.


Stuff the mixture into the bag & sew up the hole.


Variations:

You may want shove some chamomile or mint etc. into the mix.


For a pillow about 32 x 23 cm:4 handfuls/cups dried hops flowers

4 handfuls dried lavender flowers


Use: Place the hop pillow under or beside your head to hopefully induce sleep, assuming that the rustling noise won’t keep you awake or worrying about the hops’ resinous lupulin powder seeping out!


You will need to replace the dried flowers in the pillow every few weeks for maximum effectiveness, & wash the case!


My Fuggles (L. H.) &

my Challengers (R. H.).

www.planthunter.com.au

HOP WEIGHTS (G) FOR 23L & A GIVEN BITTERNESS (Assumes 20% utilisation)
%
EBU
AA
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
1.5
38
77
115
2.0
29
58
86
115
144
2.5
23
46
69
92
115
138
3.0
19
38
58
77
96
115
134
3.5
16.4
33
49
66
82
99
115
131
148
4.0
14.4
29
43
58
72
86
101
115
129
144
4.5
12.8
26
38
51
64
77
89
102
115
128
141
5.0
11.5
23
35
46
58
69
81
92
104
115
127
138
150
5.5
10.5
21
31
42
52
63
73
84
94
105
115
125
136
146
6.0
9.6
19.2
29
38
48
58
67
77
86
96
105
115
125
134
144
6.5
8.8
17.7
27
35
44
53
62
71
80
88
97
106
115
124
133
142
150
7.0
8.2
16.4
25
33
41
49
58
66
74
82
90
99
107
115
123
131
140
7.5
7.7
15.3
23
31
38
46
54
61
69
77
84
92
100
107
115
123
130
8.0
7.2
14.4
22
29
36
43
50
58
65
72
79
86
93
101
108
115
122
8.5
6.8
13.5
20.3
27
34
41
47
54
61
68
74
81
88
95
101
108
115
9.0
6.4
12.8
19.2
26
32
38
45
51
58
64
70
77
83
89
96
102
109
9.5
6.1
12.1
18.2
24
30
36
42
48
54
61
67
73
79
85
91
97
103
10.0
5.8
11.5
17.3
23
29
35
40
46
52
58
63
69
75
81
86
92
98
10.5
5.5
11
16.4
22
27
33
38
44
49
55
60
66
71
77
82
88
93
11.0
5.2
10.5
15.7
21
26
31
37
42
47
52
58
63
68
73
78
84
89
11.5
5.0
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
12.0
4.8
9.6
14.4
19
24
29
34
38
43
48
53
58
62
67
72
77
81
12.5
4.6
9.2
13.8
18
23
28
32
37
41
46
51
55
60
64
69
74
78
13.0
4.4
8.8
13.3
18
22
27
31
35
40
44
49
53
58
62
66
71
75
13.5
4.3
8.5
12.8
17
21
26
30
34
38
43
47
51
55
60
64
68
72
14.0
4.1
8.2
12.3
16
21
25
29
33
37
41
45
49
53
58
62
66
70
14.5
4.0
7.9
11.9
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
44
48
52
56
59
63
67
15.0
3.8
7.7
11.5
15
19
23
27
31
35
38
42
46
50
54
58
61
65
15.5
3.7
7.4
11.1
15
19
22
26
30
33
37
41
45
48
52
56
59
63
16.0
3.6
7.2
10.8
14
18
22
25
29
32
36
40
43
47
50
54
58
61

All hop weights over 150g

have been ignored.

#HOP

HOP TEAS              HOP RECIPES