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Pete’s Pint Pot.

Hoop’-la Department.

This is the small print where I deny everything and refuse to take any responsibility for anything. Any opinions given should not be taken as facts & any facts given should not be taken as opinions. As an extra precaution all the really small print is in white text, this is copyrighted .

E. & O. E.

Copyright  2008. First published 17 October 2008, last updated  20 January 2018.

Pete’s Pint Pot is dedicated to the home production & sensible drinking of beer, wine, cider & meads plus a little bit of china painting & a few bits of photograph tampering.

If you are affected by any of the articles on this site or any of the issues raised in them, I truly feel very sorry for you.

Finally the sanity clause: As Chico Marx

famously said to brother Groucho,

  “Everybody knows there ain't no

     Sanity Clause!”


Some pages may contain music!

Do not enter this site if you are allergic to nuts!

* Home Page & Site Search

             * Adverts & Other Trivia

    * General

             * Good Health

                     * “Diabetic” Beer & Wine Recipes

             * Herbs & Spices

             * Fruit & Veg.

             * Electric Booze

             * Glasses

             * Pete’s Pint Pot Problem Page

             * Non-Alcoholic Drinks

             * Alcoholic Cocktails

                     * Mull Page

             * Learners Page

             * Saints

             * Kit Modification

             * Beer & Wine Kit Reviews

             * Jam & Other Miscellanous Recipes

    * Beer Pages

             * Clone Page

             * Piggy-back Beer Recipes

                     * Priming Beers

             * Partial Mashing & Steeping

             * Beer Style

                     * Periodic Table

             * Hops

             * Malt & Sugars

             * Beers I Have Known

    * Wine Pages

             * Alligator Wine & Other Recipes

             * General Wine Recipes  

             * Grapes & Wines

             * Poisonous Plants

    * Cider, Perry & Meads Page

             * More Braggots & Meads

             * Piggy-back Cider Recipes

    * Spirit Page

             * Spirits – An Insight To Their Production

    * Potty Page

             * Image Manipulation

             * Nice Page

             * Music Page



Sex Welcome to my web site.

On the 5 March, the hit counter was updated to the “unique visitors” to my site, supplied by the site server (as opposed “visitor counts”).

You are allegedly visitor number                                to my site.

After a bit of encouragement from Stephan at YoBrew (now also at, I finally decided to have a go at producing my own web-site. I tried several programs available on magazine cover-discs or downloaded free from the Internet, eventually adopting the Serif WebPlus X2 (& later on the X4 & X5) package as I found it the easiest to use, although I did have my fair share of problems! Designing the site was the easiest part, although I didn’t appreciate that at the time. It was the publishing of the site that really confused me but many thanks to Stephan for his tireless patience (his wife tells me that he repaired the wall as soon as his head got better) & enormous effort in setting things up for me.

I have learnt not to believe statements from software manufacturers who claim their product is ideal for beginners etc. I sometimes get very annoyed when magazine articles/reviews say the same, they know what they are doing, they are professionals who rely on advertisers for some of their income! Do they ever get a few novices to try the stuff out? I suppose they could do & it is me that is particularly obtuse when it comes to computer stuff (just like everything else!).

As this is my first ever venture into web site construction I hope you do not expect a (very) high degree of competence but I hope the site improves as I get a deeper understanding of what I’m doing & what you the visitor wants, so please be patient with me. The site is not intended to be cutting-edge, garish or flash, but substance rather than style will hopefully prevail. It is my intention to up-date the site regularly but, as Dr. Samuel Johnson is often quoted as saying,

“The road to hell is paved with good intentions”.

Piggy-Back Beers,

Wines & Ciders

Paul Samuel Whiteman & Bing Crosby recorded this song, written by Vincent Youmans (music), William Rose (lyrics) & Edward Eliscu (lyrics), on the 9th Oct. 1929. They hit the US charts 14th Dec. 1929 for 9 weeks, reaching No. 1 for 2 weeks.

#P.Pot Adverts & Other Triviality


It was my intention to have this site completely free of any advertising but I have included a few links to other sites, mainly on my “Adverts” page, you may also notice some “names” appearing from time-to-time, but only when I consider them pertinent.

You may just get the impression that I sometimes use this site to have little rants about people and/or things that annoy me, please do not take these too seriously.

The site is not “vegetarian” but my sympathies/lifestyle do lean in that direction. I will refrain from cracking the old joke about why, if we’re not supposed to eat animals, did God make them from meat?

Wherever possible, my criteria for beer, wine & cider making is to use the minimum of chemicals & additives &, as far as I know, no animals will be harmed.

This may sound like a long abandoned mission statement from some wretchedly “cutting-edge” (or is it now “edgy”?) old British broadcasting company, but it would be satisfying to know that this site could inform, educate & entertain its’ visitors.

The Potty Page has been included to show a few examples of the wife’s china painting & the Image Manipulation page as an extra bit of Narcissism.

You will see several references on this site to the YoBrew Recipe Calculators, Graham Wheeler, the well-known & respected brewer & author has released his free beer calculator at, the free “Qbrew” calculator is also very good & freely available via the internet.

Whilst this site is “British” & aimed at “drinkers” I hope some of the bits will appeal to those of different nationalities & that visiting “non-drinkers” will find something of interest.



Like most true Yorkshire folk I am quite thrifty (a word which too many outsiders mistakenly regard as a euphemism for “tight-fisted”), so when I’m making a beer or wine kit, I often produce another batch of my own stuff at the same time, I refer to this “piggy-back” brewing. These procedures can save both time & money (the cost of a packet of yeast & a bit of left-over beer!).


If, for example, I am making a kit & the fermentation is almost complete, I rack this beer into a clean, covered fermenting bin & leave for a week to “rest”, this allows some time for a lot of unwanted sediment to settle out before the bottling process, resulting in a lot less sludge in the bottom of the bottles. After this first racking the sludge left was previously discarded into my compost bin. Now I collect some of it, & most of the beer dregs, in a small sterile bottle. The bin can now be cleaned & used for a brew of my own, usually it is of a similar style to my kit as some manufacturers use different yeasts for beers & lagers etc. When the recovered yeast is added to the new brew fermentation starts very quickly as it is still quite active. After bottling the “rested” kit, any leftovers are put into the fermenter with my brew (this is why I sometimes end up with more beer than I started with!). This beer is then racked into a cleaned fermenter & left to rest for a week before bottling.

Some “piggy-back” beer recipes.


My usual first step in wine kit making (after cleaning & sterilising the equipment) is to re-hydrate the yeast in about 50ml of slightly warm (20-30°C) water/fruit juice (approx. 50/50 mix). While the yeast is re-hydrating & multiplying, I can make my kit as normal, I can also make up my own wine or cider concoction(s) at the same time. When ready, the yeast can be divided more or less equally between the musts. Three or more lots can be made simultaneously but, to a simple soul like me, making two is at once is quite complicated enough.

Some “piggy-back” wine recipes.

Some “piggy-back” cider recipes.

GLOSSARY of some of the terms used on Pete’s Pint Pot & elsewhere.

AAU: Alpha Acid Unit is a stupid (to me) unit of bitterness sometimes called Home-brew Bittering Unit (HBU - an equally stupid term).

                             AAU = hop weight (ounces) x %AA.

For example, if  your recipe calls for 12 AAU you will need to use 3 oz  of  4% Alpha Acid (AA) hops, if you are using hops of 3.7 AA then good luck to you! This assumes you are brewing US (of course!) gallons.

ABV: Alcohol By Volume (UK) as opposed to Alcohol By Weight (a US measurement). At relatively low levels (<10%), the alcohol percentage by weight is about 4/5 of the ABV (e.g., 3.2% ABW is equivalent to 4.0% ABV).

ACID (1): The acidity of finished wines is generally between 0.5 & 0.75%, depending on the style, fermentation adds about 0.15% & would not start if no acid was present. Acid gives wine it’s “bite” & esters (formed with tannins), &, without it, the wine would be bland, insipid & prone to spoilage. Most fruits contain mainly three acids in various quantity's, grapes mostly consist of tartaric acid, most other fruits are mainly malic & citric, vegetables & flowers can be considered to be virtually acid free. If too much Tartaric acid is used it comes out of solution in the form of ARGOLS. This does not happen with citric, it remains in the wine & can cause off flavours by the action of bacteria. If acid is needed, I would use tartaric for this reason. “Acid mix” is a complete waste of time & money.

ACID (2): See Hops. Hops contain two main acids, Alpha acid (AA) which give bitterness & taste, Beta acids (BA) give aroma & antiseptic qualities to beers.

ADJUNCT: Grains such as corn, maize, wheat etc. used in addition to malted barley to make a beer.

ALE: A general term for a top-fermented beer. It is one of the two main branches of the beer family, the other being lager. Of the two, ale is the older, dating back thousands of years, whereas lager is less than 200 years old. Ales are most commonly brewed in the British Isles.

ARGOLS: The beautiful, harmless, tiny glass-like crystals that sometimes appear in bottles of wine. One advantage of using Tartaric acid for wine making is that any excess will be deposited in the form of these crystals (potassium hydrogen tartrate, potassium tartrate or dipotassium tartrate & has the formula K2C4H4O6), especially when the wine is cooled.

Potassium tartrate often confused with potassium bitartrate, also known as cream of tartar &, as a food additive, it shares the E number E336 with potassium bitartrate.

ATTENUATION: The percentage of “sugars” which beer yeast consumes during fermentation (the sugars are converted into alcohol &carbon dioxide). A 100% attenuation would indicate a beer had fermented all the way down to an FG of 1000.

                                       Attenuation = {(FG - OG) / (FG - 1000)} x 100%

Example, for a beer consisting of malted barley with an OG of 1040 & an FG of 1010 then

                                       Attenuation = {(1040 - 1010) / (1040 - 1000)} x 100%

                                                            = 75% (this term is often referred to as the Yeast Efficiency)

But nothing is as simple as that! If the wort has other fermentables & sugars added (including priming sugar) the same yeast will exhibit a different attenuation/efficiency.

Example, if the beer now has some crystal & some granulated sugar added the new OG may become 1065 & the FG of 1009.5 then the “new” may be

                                       Attenuation = {(1065- 1009.5) / (1065 - 1000)} x 100%

                                                            = 85% (approx.)

The yeast efficiency is STILL 75%. Note that yeast manufactures give a range of  yeast efficiencies/attenuation for each yeast.

BEER: A fermented drink made from grain, most often malted barley, & usually flavoured with hops. “Beer” is sometimes used to describe ales only but it really is a general term that also includes lagers, wheat beers, all styles mentioned on my Beer Styles page & many more. See ale & lager.

BENTONITE: See Fining. A clay, found around Fort Benton in the USA that can be used as a fining agent. Because it is negatively charged, it attracts positively charged particles, causing large clumps to form & settle out. Other uses include Mascara but please do not be liberal with this information as some people may not like the idea of paying lots of money for some solid mud which they spit on & brush it to their eye-brows to look like adverts for the WWF.

BITTERNESS: is measured in EBUs (European Bittering Units), these are the same as IBUs (International Bittering Units). See the Hops page for more details.

BJCP: They say “The purpose of the Beer Judge Certification Program is to promote beer literacy & the appreciation of real beer, & to recognize beer tasting & evaluation skills.” Most other people think the beer styles quoted are too narrow (half the British ales would fail) & that they are too eager to keep on moving the goalposts as a method of justifying themselves. At least some (restrictive) definitions are laid down. I think they are best regarded as guidelines only (to be taken with a pinch of salt?). A summary can be at

BOTTOM FERMENTING: Lager fermentations in which the yeast (Saccharomyces carlsbergensis) cells collect at the bottom of the fermenting wort. This normally takes place at temperatures around 9-15°C.

BREW/BREWING: There are three basic definitions for the terms:

     1. To make beer etc. from malt & hops by steeping, boiling & fermenting

     2. To make, for example tea, by steeping/boiling

     3. To plot (mischief, trouble etc.)

Here, at Pete’s Pint Pot, we shall generally assume that brewing entails the making of beers, wines, ciders etc. (No. 1), & of course tea & coffee (2), I leave No. 3 to my dear wife!

BREWER’S DEGREE: Often you will see specific gravities expressed as say 1040 or 1.040. Here we miss off the “superfluous” figures & call it “40” or, more correctly “40°”. A gravity of 998 or 0.998 would be subsequently written as

“-2” (“-2°” ).


CAMPDEN TABLETS: Anhydrous sodium metabisulphite (Na2S205) is the usual typical active ingredient & is harmful if inhaled or swallowed & may cause allergic reaction in some people, especially asthmatics. The tablets (E No. E223) work by causing the gas sulphur dioxide to be released, acting as a sterilizer, killing bacteria, germs, moulds, & other little nasties etc. & is said to inhibit most wild yeasts (how it recognises/differentiates between the two, I do not know!). The sulphur dioxide also help to preserve wine by displacing any air that may exist in the finished wine. Used properly, there should be no problems with Campden tablets as the gas is easily dispersed.

CHILL HAZE: Beers, relatively high in nitrogen, may become cloudy/hazy at low temperatures. Malt made from 2-row barley contains much less nitrogen than the cheaper 6-row barley which could need adjuncts added to “dilute” the nitrogen when making lighter coloured beers. Fortunately a chill haze is not an indication of a bad beer.

CLEARED: After fermentation (& before racking) beer/wines etc. are generally left for any particles suspended in the solution to “settle out”, “clearing” agents are often used (mostly in the case of wines) to speed up this process from several weeks to a day or two. Most beers clear in a few days so clearing agents are rarely required.

COLOUR: Beer colour, measured by a spectrophotometer, is the absorbance at 430nm (violet range of the spectrum) for a given path length times 10. The path length for the EBC (European Brewing Convention units) is 25mm & for the SRM (the US Standard Reference Method) is for a ½ inch. Both methods give a logarithmic scale.

When determining the colour of beer, use a plain, un-stemmed glass, get down to the required value, stick the glass on a piece of white paper, view from above & compare the colour with a beer colour chart. OR hold the glass up to the light & take a guess! The latter could be the most accurate as most charts available on the internet are rather dubious. It is worth pointing out the perceived colour of beer may be totally different to the measured value, this is mainly attributed to the colour of the light used.

1 SRM ≈ 0.508 EBC (may be assumed to be one half for most purposes - do not be fooled by more complex calculations).

COMPLEX: A beer or wine exhibiting numerous flavours & possibly aromas.

CORKED: NOT a wine with bits of cork floating about in it but a general term used to indicate a wine that suffers from undesirable smells &/or tastes after it has been opened.




FINAL GRAVITY: The FG may also be referred to as the “finished” gravity & is the SG of a brew that has fermented out or stopped.

FINING: A method of clarifying beers/wines & ciders etc. by adding to it an inert or a soluble substance which becomes insoluble by interaction with tannin and settles down to the bottom, pulling suspended matter down with it.

Fining agents (finings) include such things as clay (Bentonite), boiled animal bits,(gelatine), fish swim bladders, (isinglass), sea weed, sea shells, (chitosan), blood, egg white, milk, … I’ve no idea what made them try such things! So, Vegetarians, & those who have sympathy with their beliefs, buy with care & check the labels for information. At this point it may be pertinent to say that I rarely use finings, especially for beer, but I do use Bentonite when winemaking. Most wines will clear naturally within a few weeks.

Bentonite, Gelatin, Irish Moss, Isinglass & Kieselsol are used in commercial products.

FLOCCULATION: The ability for a yeast to clump together & “settle out” after fermentation. Usually yeasts are quoted as being “low”, “medium” or “high” flocculating.

HCU: Homebrew Colour Units. Another stupid unit which needs to be consigned to the dustbin (trash can).

          HCU = {weight (lb.) x colour of malt/grain (°Lovibond)} / volume of beer (US gallons)

HERBS & SPICES: Definitions of herbs & spices vary somewhat but here are my basic definitions:

Culinary herbs are annual, biennial or perennial plants whose green leaves, stems, tender roots or ripe seeds have an aromatic flavours & fragrance & like spices, they are used in small amounts & provide flavours rather than substance to food.

Spices usually come from tropical plants & trees & maybe in the form of buds/flowers, seeds, berries/fruit, seeds or even the roots or bark.

Some plants are used as both as herbs & spices, a good example is coriander whose leaves are a herb & their seeds are a spice.

See the Herbs & Spices page.

HOME BREW: My definition is rather broad-based in that it covers not just home brewing but home cider & wine making as well, in fact any alcoholic drink that is modified in some way.


INOCULATION: For beer/wine etc., it is simply the adding of a prepared yeast to the wort/must to start fermentation.

LAGER: The bottom fermenting lager is one of the two main branches of the beer family. The word lager is derived from a German word meaning "to store". Here in the UK it is generally regarded as any light coloured, bottom-fermented beer as “they” don’t understand “Dunkles”. For more information see the Beer Styles page.

LATE ADDITIONS: Can be used in beers or wines to enhance the flavour &/or the aroma. In beers the usual late addition are hops, generally for the last 15 mins. of the boil but other things can be used like coriander & orange peel (zest). In homemade wine fruit or juices are added when the gravity falls to less than about 1015.

LEES: Dead yeast cells & other dross which settles in the wine after fermentation.

LOSSES/WASTAGE: I refer to the “original volume” - the “final volume” of a wine, cider or beer etc. as the “losses” or “wastage”. I generally quote a wines’ “original volume” as 4.7 litres to give a “finished volume” of 4.5 litres, enough to fill six 750ml bottles.

LOVIBOND: A US (of course) unit of grain colour. Read on at your own peril!

    Malt Colour Units (MCU of a recipe) = Weight of grain (lbs) x Colour of grain (°Lovibond) / Volume (US gallons)

                                          SRM (colour) = 1.4922 x (MCU x 0.6859)

Note: there are at least THREE DIFFERENT equations for this! (All giving different answers.)


MUDDLE: (See LOVIBOND above.) Some cocktails recipes call for some ingredients to be muddled (crushing of fruits &/or herbs to allowing the flavours to be released) usually in the bottom of a glass, by pressing them with a muddler (of course) using a twisting action before adding other ingredients. The muddler is shaped like a miniature baseball bat that is usually made of wood but the back a spoon could be used, taking great care not to scratch the glass.

MULLS: Fundamentally made by heating an alcoholic drink (such as wines, ciders, beer or spirits) with sugar & spices to make a warming drink. See Mull Page.

MUST: Essentially (joke?) un-fermented wine - the stuff you shove in a demijohn.

OENOLOGY: Or enology (ee-nol-uh-jee), is the science of wine & winemaking. An oenologist is a “student of wine”, a specialist in wine making.

ORIGINAL GRAVITY: The OG is the SG of our beer or wine etc. before fermentation starts.

PECTIC ENZYME: Is usually added at the rate of about 5g or 1 tsp per 4.5 litres of wine must to prevent “pectin hazes”, greater doses are added when using high pectin fruits such as damsons & quinces. Pectin is highly desirable when making jams.

PRIMING: Puts the “fizz” in our beer, cider, sparkling wines etc. The amount of “fizz” depends the amount of fermentable material (usually sugar) added to the bottles to to cause a secondary fermentation, is often referred to as “volumes CO2so if a litre of beer is carbonated to 2 “volumes” it will contain 2 litres of CO2.

RACKING: This simply refers to siphoning a beer or wine into a sterilized storage vessel or bottle, leaving all the sediment behind.

SHAMPOO: An imitation poo.

SPARGE: The solid grains remains & hops are separated from the liquid (sweet wort) in the sparging process, this is basically a sieving or straining operation where hot water is gently sprinkled over the solids. Be careful you do not end up with too much liquid!


SOMMELIER: (Suhm-uhl-YEY, saw-muh-LYEY)

Not a smelly wine waiter but a wine-waiter in a restaurant who orders & maintains the wines sold in the restaurant & has a generally extensive knowledge about wine/food pairings. He/she may, or may not be smelly.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY: The S.G. or simply the “gravity” of a substance is it’s relative density compared with water. 1 litre of water at 20°C & 1 Atm. weighs 1Kg & therefore has an SG of 1 or 1.000 or 1000 depending on personal preference, you may also see it referred to simply as “0” when using “brewer’s degrees”.

If we have a wort or a must with an SG of 1.060 or 1060 or 60 then 1 litre will weigh 1.060 Kg. A fermented wine may have a gravity of 993 (using my preferred notation) & so 1 litre will weigh 993g or 0.993 Kg.


STAR-BRIGHT: An graphic description of a wine/beer etc. that has fully cleared.

STUCK FERMENTATION: A fermentation that has ceased “working” before all the sugar has been transformed by the yeast. Mainly due to the lack of nutrient, incorrect temperature or the wrong strain of yeast.

TANNIN: Is mainly found in the skins & seeds of fruits, it provides bitterness to wines. Less than 0.4% is requires for white wines & 0.9-0.3% for reds, rosés come some where between the two.

TCP: Comes in bottles & can be used for sore throats, mouth ulcers, cuts, etc. & has a distinctive medical aroma & taste.

Some Water Companies add too much chlorine & chloramines to their water as a germ killer & they can spoil our beer& wines. Some people boil their water with a Campden tablet but it forms soluble sodium metabisulphate. Chlorines etc. can be reduced by splashing or, better still, passing it through a sterilized shower head. But, the simplest option is to just add 10ml supermarket orange juice per litre of water to nullify most chloramines. Suitable for both beer & wines.

TOP FERMENTING: Ale fermentations during which the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells are carried to the top of the fermenting liquid. This normally takes place around 15-22°C.

WINE: By true definition it is a drink made from fermented grape juices & is typically in the 10-16% ABV range. On the vast majority of sites, including PetesPintPot, wine is generally considered as being made from any fruit/fruit juices & the term “country wine” is technically much more accurate.

WORT: In our case this is pronounced to rhyme with shirt, is the technical name for the stuff in your fermenting bin that you add yeast to, eventually making beer. Other, non-brewing pronunciations include wart or whart & possibly with a few more variations.

Kit Reviews

Commercial Beer


Beers I Have Known

Pete’s YoBrew Beer +

Wine & Jam Calculators